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The Digital Forest: Is Sensor Technology the Way Forward?

This article was first published in the International Associaton of Wildland Fire's Wildfire Magazine. An updated version is provided here.


The Internet of Things (IoT) is a rapidly growing field with applications in a wide range of industries. Early adopters were drawn to its potential for making homes more convenient and efficient, but recent developments have shown that IoT can also be used to improve healthcare, transportation, and manufacturing.

The IoT can be thought of as a network of physical objects – or things – that are embedded with sensors, software, and network connectivity to collect and exchange data. The data collected from IoT devices can be used to improve efficiency, productivity, and decision making in a variety of industries.

Advancements in sensor technology, cloud computing, wireless connectivity, and artificial intelligence have led to a rapid growth in the use of IoT. IoT devices are now being used in a wide range of applications, including healthcare, manufacturing, and fleet management.

For example, in the healthcare industry, IoT is being used to monitor patients remotely, track medical equipment, and improve patient care. Wearable devices can be used to collect data on patients’ vital signs, which can be sent to doctors for monitoring; this can help doctors identify potential problems early on and intervene before they become serious.

The Digital Forest

Another arena that’s benefitting from proliferating IoT use-cases is the forest. Forest health monitoring assesses and ensures the well-being of forest environments by evaluating various indicators such as tree growth, tree mortality, and outbreaks of pests and diseases. Before the emergence of disruptive IoT technologies, this work would primarily have been conducted manually, often by human observation and fieldwork.

silvanet wildfire sensor

However, deploying IoT sensors in the forest provides forestry owners and other stakeholders with valuable real-time data such as temperature, humidity, soil moisture, and air quality. This information can then be used to identify potential problems, such as drought, pests, or diseases.

While in-depth, qualitative research and monitoring will always have an important role to play, the digitization of forest health monitoring yields many benefits. Human-led efforts are very labor-intensive, time-consuming and face significant issues when it comes to covering and monitoring large forests – especially remote ones. There will also be a lag in data availability due to the data needing to be manually collated and interpreted.

IoT technology has revolutionized forest health monitoring by enabling real-time data collection, automated monitoring, and remote data transmission. Sensors placed in the forest can now provide continuous and up-to-date information on crucial parameters, allowing for rapid actionable insights and therefore greatly enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of forest health monitoring practices.

Companies such as Ireland-based Treemetrics uses advanced technologies such as drones, remote sensing and IoT sensors to collect data on tree inventory, growth rates, and timber quality. In the United States, NCX combines remote sensing, machine learning, and IoT technologies to offer forest inventory and management services.

Berlin-based Dryad Networks specializes in forest monitoring solutions using IoT sensors; its solar-powered sensor network collects real-time data on environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, soil moisture, and air quality. This data helps in assessing forest health and detecting potential risks.

A Pressing Problem

One of the most pressing and devastating risks that forests face is wildfires. Wildfires are a major source of greenhouse gas emissions, with some estimates claiming that they account for up to one-fifth of all emissions. When forests burn, they release carbon dioxide, methane, and other pollutants into the atmosphere. These gasses contribute to climate change, which in turn makes wildfires more likely and more severe.

As well as providing forest health monitoring insights via its IoT mesh network in the forest, Dryad’s initial focus is on wildfire detection. By monitoring environmental conditions within a forest, the system is able to – with the help of artificial intelligence – detect a smoldering fire. Because the environmental conditions change when a fire first starts, Dryad’s network of sensors is able to provide wildfire alerts within minutes, giving firefighters a crucial head start.

graph comparing sensors to cameras and satellites

The Electronic Nose

The concept of Dryad's system as an "electronic nose" paints a vivid picture to highlight its sensitivity and effectiveness in detecting forest fires. In essence, Dryad's IoT network resembles an intricate olfactory system for the forest environment, much like how a human nose can detect subtle changes in the air. This electronic nose, however, operates on a different sensory spectrum, one tailored to the unique conditions and factors of a forest.

Just as our own noses can detect unusual odors or deviations from the norm, Dryad's network of sensors is designed to recognize shifts in the forest's ambient conditions. These shifts may include alterations in temperature, humidity, and air quality, all of which can serve as early indicators of a potential fire outbreak. When these conditions deviate significantly from the expected norms, Dryad's sensors spring into action. With the help of embedded AI, the sensors can they discern whether a smoldering fire is present, and raise the alarm where necessary.

The beauty of this system lies in its ability to act swiftly and autonomously. Upon detecting these deviations, the IoT sensors communicate seamlessly with a network of gateways strategically positioned throughout the forest. These gateways serve as the intermediaries, relaying critical information to a cloud platform accessible to the relevant authorities and stakeholders.

Schematic of a Silvanet deployment
Schematic of a Silvanet deployment

Armed with timely and precise data, firefighters can rapidly mobilize their resources to pinpoint the fire's exact location and assess its potential threat. This head start is invaluable, enabling them to respond swiftly and with the necessary resources to extinguish the blaze before it spirals out of control. By allowing firefighters to extinguish just-started fires as opposed to containing raging ones, Dryad claims that its technology can be a game-changer in the fight against wildfires.

Sensors, Cameras, or Satellites?

There are many benefits to leveraging IoT technologies when it comes to wildfires. While legacy approaches such as cameras and satellites will have a role to play, sensor-based solutions offer advantages when it comes to early detection.

Firstly, IoT sensors provide continuous and real-time monitoring of environmental conditions; this allows for immediate detection of changes in temperature, humidity, and smoke, enabling rapid response and early wildfire detection.

Secondly, deployment of sensors within the forest itself ensures rapid detection; this means wildfires can be detected at their early stages, even in remote or inaccessible locations, reducing response time and preventing fires from spreading.

Sensor-based approaches are often more cost-effective than relying solely on cameras or satellites. Cameras require infrastructure setup, maintenance, and have a limited field of view, while satellites can be expensive and have limitations in terms of coverage and frequency of imagery. In contrast, IoT sensors are relatively affordable, easy to deploy, and can cover a larger area.

Finally, sensor-based approaches allow for integration with advanced data analytics and other IoT tools. By combining sensor data with machine learning algorithms, the digital forest allows for advanced analysis, pattern recognition, and early warning system optimization, further enhancing the accuracy and effectiveness of wildfire detection.


In conclusion, the Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably a transformative force, reshaping industries and revolutionizing the way we collect and utilize data. From enhancing healthcare through remote patient monitoring to optimizing manufacturing processes and even venturing into the heart of our forests, IoT's potential seems boundless.

In our exploration of IoT's role in forest health monitoring, we've witnessed its power to digitize what was once a labor-intensive, manual endeavor. By deploying IoT sensors in forests, we've enabled real-time data collection, automation, and rapid data transmission. This technological leap has not only vastly improved the efficiency and effectiveness of forest health monitoring but has also offered a critical advantage in the battle against one of our planet's most pressing threats: wildfires.

wildfire blazing on a hillside

The capacity of IoT to serve as a digital forest guardian is exemplified by companies like Dryad Networks, whose sensor networks act as electronic noses, keenly attuned to the subtlest changes in forest conditions. Their early wildfire detection systems, coupled with artificial intelligence, provide firefighters with crucial head starts in combating these devastating blazes, with potentially far-reaching environmental benefits.

In our quest for a safer and more sustainable coexistence with our natural world, IoT technology stands as a powerful ally. By continuously monitoring environmental conditions, offering real-time insights, and enabling rapid responses, it has the potential to play a pivotal role in protecting our forests, our climate, and our future. With careful attention to its development and responsible application, we can harness IoT's capabilities to foster a world where humans and nature coexist harmoniously, fortified by the ever-watchful eye of technology.

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